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Placenta Previa

Placenta Previa risk factors include a previous delivery, age older than 35 and a history of previous surgeries, such as a caesarean section (C-section) or uterine fibroid removal.

Under normal circumstances, the placenta to the uterine wall far from the uterine opening or else migrates out of the way as the pregnancy progresses. In certain cases, the placenta may partially or completely cover the cervix. This is called a placenta previa. it can cause hemorrhagic bleeding, HIE, and birth trauma.

Types of Placenta Previa

There are two types of placenta previa:

  • total or Complete previa, in which the placenta covers the cervix completely.
  • partial previa or Marginal , in which the placenta is on the boundary of the cervix.

Further, some women have what is named a low-lying placenta, which is when the placenta is very near to, but not hindering, the cervical opening. This often transfers upward in the uterus throughout pregnancy without medical interference.

Diagnosis of a suspected placenta praevia

  • Is by transvaginal ultrasound
  • In asymptomatic minor placenta praevia, follow -up scan at 32-36 weeks.
  • Is asymptomatic major placenta praevia, a follow-up scan at 30-32 weeks.
  • In asymptomatic placenta praevia- manage on an individual basis.
  • Consider placenta praevia in a woman with bleeding, high head or abnormal lie.

Risk Factors for Placenta Previa

Smoking Recurrent Abortions
Multiparity Prior Uterine surgery
Cocaine use Advancing age(> 35 years)
Erythroblastosis Low socioeconomic status
Non-white Ethnicity Short interpregnancy interval
Infertility treatment Multiple gestation (large surface area of placenta)

Causes of Placenta Previa:

The reason of placenta previa are unidentified. But 1 in 500 woman suffer from placenta previa is more common in woman who have had more than one child, a caesarean birth, surgeries on the uterus and or triplets or twins.

Sign and Symptoms of Placenta Previa:

Naturally, the initial sign of placenta previa is bleeding during the second half of pregnancy. The bleeding can differ from nominal to plentiful.

Several women with placenta previa will stop bleeding and then start again. Contractions may or may not be present. An ultrasound needs to check the diagnosis of placenta previa.

If the baby is < 37 weeks gestation or preterm and bleeding is not found/has subsided, then instant delivery is pointless, and the Pregnant lady may be treated on an outpatient basis. Doctor should sensibly monitor mother with placenta previa and offer emergency care if their bleeding becomes more tenacious. If the baby is > 37 weeks gestation or mature and the mother is in labor pains, or if haemorrhaging is present, instant delivery of the fetus via C-section is essential to stop hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and other injuries.

Complications of Placenta Previa

  • Preterm birth
  • Abnormal fetal presentation
  • Maternal bleeding/haemorrhage
  • Placenta accreta
  • Placental abruption

Treatment of Placenta Previa

Treatment for placenta previa depends on severity. Bed rest is most important. sexual abstinence. a C-Section or blood transfusion maybe needed in critical cases.

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